Holtzworth-Munroe, Amy, Rehman, Uzma S. “A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Demand–Withdraw Marital Interaction: Observing Couples From a Developing Country” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, (2006): 755–766
Buunk, Abraham P. and Park, Justin H. “Parent–Offspring Conflict in Mate Preferences” Review of General Psychology 12, (2008): 47–62
|Saleem, Muhammad . “Pakistani Marriage.” ArticlesBase. 23 Feb. 2010. 14 Apr. 2010. <http://www.articlesbase.com/marriage-articles/pakistani-marriage-1895049.html>.|
Selin, Lisa . “All but the Ring: Why Some Couples Don’t Wed.” CNN. 25 May. 2009. 14 Apr. 2010. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1898346-2,00.html.
A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Demand–Withdraw Marital Interaction: Observing Couples From a Developing Country
In the article researchers Uzma Rehman and Amy Holtzworth-Munroe do a cross-cultrual analysis of couples from Pakistan and White couples from America. Their theory is that women in western countries seem to be more demanding than men and men seem to withdraw. But this is said to be high influenced by gender roles and beliefs mostly in traditional marriages. To test this the researchers conducted an observational study of communication between married couples across cultures. The “demand-withdraw” communication was related to martial distress. For our project we are going to compare tradition events that are preformed in our countries (Pakistan and Mexico) to how they are preformed here in the United States. Also whether or not western culture influences how our cultural traditions are preformed in America. This article relates to our project because the researchers are comparing Pakistani- Americans to immigrants from Pakistan and to White Americans. The communication between married couples in Pakistan is different from married couples living in the United States. There is a lot of Western influence on the relationship between a women and men here in the United States and is much different that those who have a relationship in Pakistan.
Parent–Offspring Conflict in Mate Preferences
In this article researchers are focusing on parental influences on children’s preferences in choosing a mate. They review briefly how children’s mating behaviors across cultures have been heavily influenced by their parents throughout history. The researcher’s hypothesis why children’s preference differs from parents, parents usually have stronger preference for children’s mates in cooperation with their in-group and in investment. Whereas children have preference with characteristics that signal heritable fitness. They did an empirical study including 768 participants from different cultures and the results supported their hypothesis. This article relates to our project because most people in a traditional Pakistani marriage will be arranged by their parents based on their parent’s preferences. In earlier years in Pakistan most women did not see their husband or have any communication with him until the day of their wedding. When compared to weddings in Pakistan, Pakistani weddings in the United States have been highly of influence of American culture. Now Pakistani weddings in most western societies are not arranged but are “love marriages”, which basically means the people getting married chose each other with out the interference of their parents.
Marriage is one of the most important events in a person’s life. Mexican and Pakistani weddings are celebrated with much care and long time preparations. However, many people opt not to get married; the decline in marriage is clearly noticed. The pakistani culture strongly believes in marriage as of other Spanish cultures, marriage is an option. Spanish people, for instance Mexicans have the choice to decide whether to live with a partner without getting married or have a big wedding and live as a married couple. An article published in CNN All but the Ring: Why Some Couples Don’t Wed By Lisa Selin Davis has shown how many couples prefer to live together and have families, without having to get married. “We’d been together for 2½ years by that point, and while he didn’t want to bother getting married, a family was something he could happily commit to” said the author as she explains that her and her boyfriend don’t believe they need to be married to be a happy couple. She also argues that childbirth in unmarried couples has increased to about 40% in 2007. The author agrees that marriage is an option and is not obligatory to form a family with someone.
Another way that Mexican and Pakistani cultures differ is the choice of partners. Mexicans have the choice to marry or live with the person they want from their culture or out their culture. However Pakistanis are not allowed to marry someone who is not part of their culture or religion. “As far as marriage is concerned it is considered not a relationship between two persons but a social bond between two families” says ArticlesBase about Pakistani marriage. That’s one of the reasons why Pakistani cultures believe that marrying someone inside your own beliefs is appropriate. Weddings are important; however marriage and all the things behind it as beliefs and culture are more important to the couple and their well-being.
The methods that we will be using in our project are photo-elicitation, observation and interviews. As an observation, we have already attended a Pakistan traditional event and we will also attend a Mexican traditional event. We plan on interviewing our parents and elders of our community to get the perspective of how the particular event takes place in our country and the differences of how the event is preformed here. We will look at old photographs and new ones to compare the differences and similarities of the cultural even that took place in the past to how the event is preformed today in a western society. Are there western influences placed on the events that take place? Are the events completely different in both countries of origin? Also the comparison between the Mexican and Pakistani cultures.
For our project we have informed our participants that photographs and interviews taken of them will be published on our blogs. They have given us full consent to do so, and those who do not want to take part in the project will not be involved. We chose to use visual methods because it helps the viewer better understand. Pictures from the past will give us knowledge to compare previous events to events that happen now in this day.